In light of the trend toward high-stakes testing and other accountability demands, policy makers are focusing on the early childhood years as a crucial step in developing the competencies that form the basis of future academic success (russell, 2006). In particular, there has been increased attention paid to ensuring that children enter school ready to learn. Although there is little consensus on the specific skills and knowledge that comprise school readiness, many educators, researchers, and policy makers adopt a broad perspective that extends beyond literacy and cognitive skills. The standards put forth by the national education goals panel, for example, define five dimensions of school readiness: (a) physical well-being and motor development; (b) social and emotional development; (c) approaches to learning (e.G., Curiosity, persistence, and other dispositions toward learning); (d) language development; and (e) cognition and general knowledge (kagan, moore, & bredekamp, 1995). Although the significance of early cognitive skills to school readiness is self-evident, it is also important to understand the role that nonacademic skills, such as physical and socio-emotional development, play in preparing children for school. Young children learn through physical exploration of their environments (cassidy & shaver, 1999; smith & pederson, 1988), and lags in the development of age-appropriate gross and fine motor skills (e.G., Being able to run and skip or hold a pencil) can hinder their learning opportunities (brown, 1982; poest, williams, witt, & atwood, 1990; seefeldt, 1980). Cambridge university press 2010.