The establishment of the general department of educational testing and accreditation (gdeta), a department of the ministry of education and training (moet), in 2003 laid the first foundation for the vietnamese national quality assurance (qa) system in higher education. Since then, the system has been dominated by accreditation because other mechanisms such as audit, ranking, and benchmarking are still absent. However, the national accreditation system is still under development. At the institutional level, qa units have been set up in most universities and colleges, in many cases, simply to comply with moet’s requirements and fulfill accreditation-related tasks. In general, they lack quality management and improvement measures. As regards internationalization, vietnam has engaged actively in the development of qa in higher education in the association of south east asian nations (asean) and joined international qa organizations. Qa activities have improved the attitudes and awareness of higher education professionals about quality issues; however, their impact on higher education quality and effectiveness is insignificant. For a developing higher education system with over 400 institutions, much needs to be done for qa and improvement. The chapter will shed light on different aspects of vietnam’s higher education qa system from the perspectives of an insider while briefly outlining the background context of the local higher education system to facilitate the analysis. By highlighting emergent issues of the local qa system, the chapter will open up an academic discussion on the future development of qa, in general, and accreditation, in particular, in the country. 2017 Elsevier ltd. All rights reserved.