Purpose – building on my earlier work (dang, 2007, 2008), this chapter provides an updated review of the private tutoring phenomenon in vietnam including the reasons, scale, intensity, form, cost, and legality of these classes. In particular, this chapter offers a comparative analysis of the trends in private tutoring between 1998 and 2006 using all available data. Design/methodology/approach – this chapter analyzes data from different sources, including (i) the 2006 vietnam household living standards measurement survey (vhlss), (ii) the 1997-1998 vietnam living standards measurement survey (vlss), (iii) the 2008 vietnam household testing survey (vhts), and (iv) local press in vietnam. Quantitative methods are used. Findings – several (micro-)correlates are examined that are found to be strongly correlated with student attendance at tutoring, including household income, household heads’ education and residence areas, student current grade level, ethnicity, and household sizes. In particular, I focus on the last three variables that received little attention in the previous literature on the determinants of tutoring. Originality/value – this chapter provides an updated and systematic review of the private tutoring phenomenon in vietnam. Findings are highly relevant to the ongoing debates on private tutoring among all stakeholders in vietnam, as well as policymakers/researchers in other countries. Suggestions are proposed on current gaps in the literature for future research. 2013 By emerald group publishing limited all rights of reproduction in any form reserved.