The paper fills a gap in the literature by examining how local dimensions have been demonstrated and fostered in the vietnamese education system under the differing impacts of imperialism, colonialism, and neo-liberalism of globalization before and after 1986. Thematic analysis of relevant literature and policies reveals that the local dimensions were characterized by local people’s responses, such as adaptation, appropriation, creativity, nationalism, and patriotism, in the imperial and colonial times. Under the impetus of the neo-liberalism influences of globalization in the post-colonial period, the local dimensions have been featured by higher education reforms and internationalization policies. Cheng’s multiple theories of fostering local knowledge in globalized education were employed to discuss such local dimensions and associated challenges. 2018, Flinders university.