In the last twenty years, vietnam has taken a more proactive approach to the internationalisation of tertiary education, including higher education. However, despite all the rhetoric about internationalisation being a fundamental priority for vietnamese higher education, actual internationalisation activities are still narrow, fragmented, inconsistent, inefficient and ad hoc across different institutions. This postscriptum pulls the books chapters together and synthesises the prominent themes addressed by the individual chapters. It critically discusses the realities as well as possibilities and challenges associated with the process of internationalisation in vietnamese higher education. It identifies the implications for vietnam to make the best use of internationalisation in higher education and reap the potential of this process to improve the he system, contribute more effectively to the national development and augment human capacity building for the country. 2018, Springer international publishing ag, part of springer nature.