The community-based care for orphans and vulnerable children (cbco) program operated in kenya during 2006-2010. In eastern province, the program provided support to approximately 3000 orphans and vulnerable children (ovc) living in 1500 households. A primary focus of the program was to support savings and loan associations composed of ovc caregivers (typically elderly women) to improve household and ovc welfare. Cross-sectional data were collected in 2011 from 1500 randomly selected households from 3 populations: program participants (cbco group, n=500), households in the same villages as program participants but not in the program (the local-community-group = group l, n=300), and households living in nearby villages where the program did not operate (the adjacent-community-group, group a, n=700). Primary welfare outcomes evaluated are household food security, as measured by the household food insecurity access instrument, and ovc educational attainment. We compared outcomes between the cbco and the subset of group l not meeting program eligibility criteria (l-n) to investigate disparities within local communities. We compared outcomes between the cbco group and the subset of group a meeting eligibility criteria (a-e) to consider program impact. We compared outcomes between households not eligible for the program in the local and adjacent community groups (l-n and a-n) to consider if the adjacent communities are similar to the local communities. In may-june 2011, at the end of the ovc program, the majority of cbco households continued to be severely food insecure, with rates similar to other households living in nearby communities. Participation rates in primary school are high, reflecting free primary education. Among the 18-22 year olds who were “children” during the program years, relatively few children completed secondary school across all study groups. Although the cbco program likely provided useful services and benefits to program participants, disparities continued to exist in food security and educational outcomes between program participants and their non-ovc peers in the local community. Outcomes for cbco households were similar to those observed for ovc households in adjacent communities. 2013 The world bank.