EDUCATION EXPENSES, MIGRATION, AND THE SCHOOLING OF YOUTH IN URBAN VIETNAM

  • 31/03/2022
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Giới thiệu

SINCE 1990, VIETNAM HAS WITNESSED NOT ONLY A STEADY ECONOMIC GROWTH BUT ALSO A GENERALLY STRONGER HUMAN DEVELOPMENT, INCLUDING ENHANCED OPPORTUNITIES FOR EDUCATION AND A GENERAL IMPROVEMENT IN SCHOOL ENROLMENT AT ALL LEVELS (NGA NGUYET NGUYEN 2004, VIETNAM AND WORLD BANK 2005: 10). THE IMPROVEMENT IN SCHOOL ENROLMENT HAS TAKEN PLACE DESPITE THE FACT THAT VIETNAMESE HOUSEHOLDS HAD TO SHOULDER APPROXIMATELY HALF OF THE EDUCATIONAL EXPENSES FOR THEIR CHILDREN IN THE 1990S (WORLD BANK 1995: 86, 99-100; VIETNAM AND INTERNATIONAL DONOR GROUP 2000 II: 98-9, 128, AND VIETNAM-GSO 2000: 267-4). POSITIVE TRENDS AT THE NATIONAL LEVEL NOTWITHSTANDING, HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN URBAN CONTEXTS IS MORE COMPLEX DUE TO THE STRONG RURAL-TO-URBAN MIGRATION FLOW AND THE LACK OF SUPPORT FOR MIGRANT CHILDREN’S EDUCATIONAL ACCESS. MORE SPECIFICALLY, A NATIONAL-LEVEL ANALYSIS OF LIVING STANDARD SURVEY DATA REVEALS THAT THE URBAN NET ENROLMENT RATE AT THE PRIMARY SCHOOL LEVEL DROPPED FROM 97 PER CENT IN 1993 TO 94 PER CENT IN 2002 (VIETNAM AND INTERNATIONAL DONOR GROUP 2003: 62). IN CH MINH CITY, THE PERCENTAGE OF 7- TO 11-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN IN OUR STUDIED POPULATION NEVER ATTENDING SCHOOL INCREASED FROM 2.3 PER CENT IN 1998 TO 8.2 PER CENT IN 2001. MOST WERE MIGRANT CHILDREN, BORN IN OTHER PROVINCES, WHO HAD RECENTLY JOINED THEIR PARENTS IN CH MINH CITY. DRAWING UPON THE SURVEY DATA IN A PANEL STUDY IN CH MINH CITY FROM 1998 TO 2001, WE EXAMINE IN THIS PAPER THE SCHOOLING OF URBAN YOUTH FROM THE AGE OF 7 TO 22 (THE STANDARD AGE RANGE FOR STUDENTS COMPLETING GRADE 1 TO UNIVERSITY EDUCATION), AS WELL AS THE IMPACT OF EDUCATIONAL EXPENSES AND BARRIERS TO MIGRANT CHILDREN’S EDUCATIONAL ACCESS ON THE SCHOOLING OF YOUTH IN CH MINH CITY. WE SUGGEST THAT THE GAP IN SCHOOL ATTENDANCE RATES AMONG CHILDREN OF SOCIOECONOMIC STRATA WIDENED SIGNIFICANTLY IN THIS THREE-YEAR PERIOD DUE TO THE RAPIDLY INCREASING COSTS OF EDUCATION ABSORBED BY HOUSEHOLDS, THE LESSER AFFORDABILITY OF EDUCATION TO HOUSEHOLDS OF LOWER SOCIO-ECONOMIC STRATA, AND THE ADDITIONAL BARRIERS TO MIGRANT CHILDREN. 2009 NUS PRESS.

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