This study investigated the effects of individuals, school, and familial protective and risk factors and their interactions on adolescent problem behaviors using a stratified random sample of 2,864 (51.5% Female) students from 55 classrooms in 13 schools in shanghai, china (mage = 15.52 Years, sd = 1.62). Results from the multilevel analyses indicate that being male, having high parentadolescent conflict, high independent self-construal, low conformity, low grade rank, and low classroom-level and individual-level school adjustment predicted problem behaviors. Adolescent independent self-construal also interacted with parental autonomy granting to predict vandalism. For adolescents with low or moderate levels of independent self-construal, autonomy granting predicted lower odds of vandalism, but for adolescents with high levels of independent self-construal, parental autonomy granting predicted higher odds of vandalism. The findings highlight the complex effects of parenting and independent/interdependent self-construals on adolescent problem behaviors in china. 2018, The author(s) 2018.