Canada is a federal state in which the governance of education is a constitutional right given to the ten provinces and three territories. Curriculum at the elementary and secondary levels is overseen by provincial and territorial ministries of education, while educational programs are administered and funded by local school boards. Secondary education in canada is universal and compulsory; students are generally expected to stay in school until age 16. Students self-select into vocational/technical schools or university by taking designated preparatory courses (bednarz et al. 2006; Vajoczki, 2009; warkentin & simpson-housley, 2001 for a history of geography education in canada). Springer science+business media b.V. 2012.